Token Emission

  • How is this token actually sent to participants?

  • Validation — Who is allowed to purchase tokens?

One of the first decisions you have to make is "how do I get these tokens to users?"

This is usually done in one of three ways:


The Crowdsale contract owns tokens and simply transfers tokens from its own ownership to users that purchase them.


The Crowdsale mints tokens when a purchase is made.

To use a MintedCrowdsale, your token must also be a ERC20Mintable token that the crowdsale has permission to mint from.


The Crowdsale is granted an allowance to another wallet (like a Multisig) that already owns the tokens to be sold in the crowdsale.

Use an AllowanceCrowdsale to send tokens from another wallet to the participants of the crowdsale. In order for this to work, the source wallet must give the crowdsale an allowance via the ERC20 approve method.

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